2/21/22

What is Topology? Different types of topology.

What is Topology?

The Arrangements of the network in such a manner that they can exchange their data and communicate with each other. There are six types of network topology. These are:- 

  1. Bus Topology
  2. Ring Topology
  3. Star Topology
  4. Mesh Topology
  5. Tree Topology
  6. Hybrid Topology

Bus Topology

  • In a Bus topology, all the computers and network devices are connected to a single cable known as a backbone cable.
  • Each Node is either connected directly to the backbone cable or through a cable that is connected to the backbone cable. 
  • The installation of this topology is quite simpler than the rest of the available networks. 
  • The Computer is connected in such a manner that they look like a straight line, that is why many people know it as “Line topology”. 
                                                              Example of Bus Topology

Advantages of Bus Topology

  • Low-Cost Cables: - In a bus topology, you need only cables to connect with backbone cables. The cost of this cable is very low as compared to other network devices. 
  • Limited Failure Points: - if one node of the network is not working well. There is no issue with the other node's network. 
  • High Speed: - In Bus topology generally twisted-pair cables or coaxial cables are used in which data transfer rates are high. 
  • Simple installation: - The installation of this network is so simple. You just need some equipment to join the cable with the backbone cable.  

Disadvantages of Bus topology

  • Extensive Cables: - Lots of Cables are used to set up for bus topology.
  • Difficult troubleshooting:- You are required to specialized equipment to detect the problems. And if the main wire (backbone cable) has a fault then all the node's connection are stop communicating. 
  • Configuration Problem:- If you want to add a new device to the network it may slow the speed of the rest of the network. 
In this part, we talk about bus topology. The rest of the topology types are covered in our next tutorial. 

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2/17/22

Different types of networks, (LAN, MAN, WAN)

Different types of networks ( LAN, MAN, WAN )

The Network allows a computer or laptop to communicate with each other via different mediums such as LAN, WAN, etc. As per studies, Currently, there are 10 (approx.) different types of networks present in the market. The Name of the networks are:- 

  • Local Area Network                    (LAN)
  • Metropolitan Area Network        (MAN)
  • Wide Area Network                    (WAN)
  • Personal Area Network               (PAN)
  • Campus Area Network                (CAN)
  • System Area Network                 (SAN)
  • Wireless Local Area Network     (WLAN)
  • Passive Optical Local Area Network(POLAN)
  • Enterprise Private Network         (EPN)
  • Virtual Private Network               (VPN)

But we consider you to study only the main type of computer networks. 

So, The 3 Main Computer networks are:- 

  1. Local Area Network (LAN)
  2. Metropolitan Area Network (MAN)
  3. Wide Area Network (WAN). 

These 3 networks are important for the study and the rest of the networks are similar to these three. If you understand these 3 computer networks well, then you will also understand the rest of the computer network easily.  

Local Area Network (LAN)

LAN is the most common, simple, and frequently used computer network. In this type of network two or more computers or devices are connected through the network in such a way that a computer can easily share its data, programs, tools, etc. The group of computers or a device are connected together by a switch or a router. 

In this network, Data Transmit speed is high because only a couple of devices are connected through it so the data transmission speed is high.

There are a lot of advantages of LAN. One of the important advantages of this network was in this network your data are only accessible for those who are connected through LAN. So LAN is considered one of the safest types of networks. 

Metropolitan Area Network (MAN)

Man or metropolitan area network covers a larger area compared to LAN and smaller area compared to WAN. In this type of network, two or more computers and devices are connected with an area of 0 to 25 Km basically span an entire city or a town. This type of network is used by Internet Service Providers (ISP). This type of network is handled by a person or an organization or company. 

One of the best examples of this network was a cable TV network, which is only capable of providing its services only a fixed graphical area.

Wide Area Network (WAN)

As per the name, this network has no limitation or boundation. This type of network has no fixed graphical area. He can extend all over the world. WAN is generally a connection between LAN and MAN. WAN has the slowest data transmit speed because of the larger distances. 

WAN network has a lot of disadvantages. Because anyone can (hackers or crackers) assess your personal data. There is no data privacy on this network. In this network, optical fiber cables are used to transmit the data. Internet and telecommunication are the best examples of this network. 



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2/13/22

C Program to find Gross Salary of an Employee.

C Program to Find Gross Salary of an Employee.

This program is made for those people who worked in any company and they have to know their gross salary. Most of the employees didn't know how much a company pays them for their services. 

So, With the help of this program, the employee knows their exact salary which is paid by a company to him.

Source Code

#include<stdio.h>
#include<conio.h>
void main()
{
float bs,da,hra,gs;
printf("Enter the Basic Salary=");
scanf("%f",&bs);
da=0.4*bs;
hra=0.2*bs;
gs=bs+hra+da;
printf("Your Dearness allowance=%f",da);
printf("\nYour House Rent allowance=%f",hra);
printf("\nYour Gross Salary is=%f",gs);
getch();
}

Output: - 




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2/9/22

C Program to Convert Kilometer into Centimeter, Meter, Inch, Feet.


C Program to Convert Kilometer into Centimeter, Meter, Inch, Feet. 

As you read in the title this program is based to convert kilometers into cm, m, inch, feet, etc.

In this program, we use float data type instead of int because we didn't know the number which is entered by the user is an integer number or a decimal number. 

After it, we applied the formulas of the conversion of km to cm, inch, m, feet.

Fun Fact: - If you don't know the formula just google it. 😉😊.

Source Code 
#include <stdio.h>
int main()
{
float km,m,f,in,cm;
    printf("\nEnter the distance in KM: ");
    scanf("%f",&km);
    m=km*1000;
    f=km*3.3;
    in=km*39;
    cm=km*180;
    printf("\n\nDISTANCE IN METERS:%f",m);
    printf("\nDISTANCE IN FEET:%f",f);
    printf("\nDISTANCE IN INCHES:%f",in);
    printf("\nDISTANCE IN CENTIMETER:%f",cm);
return 0;
}

Output:- 



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2/6/22

C Program to find Factorial of any Number.

C Program to find Factorial of any number.

In mathematics, the factorial of the whole number 'n' denoted by 'n!' is defined as the product of all the positive integers equal to or less than the given positive number "n"

The Formula of the factorial of any number was: -

n! = n * (n-1) * (n-2) * ....... 3 x 2 x 1.

For Example :- 

5! = 5 X 4 X 3 X 2 X 1 = 120.

You can also write it as 

5! = 5 X 4! = 120

Whatever we saw above was is in maths. Now we will see this through c programming. How would this formula be used in c programming? 

Source Code :-

#include<stdio.h>
main()
{
int i,n,fac=1;
printf("Enter the Number");
scanf("%d",&n);
for (i=n;i>=1;--i)
    fac*=i;
    printf("%d",fac);
getch();
}

Explanation of the code: - 
  • In this code, we simply get three integer containers ( i, n, fac ) respectively. we have already defined int fac value which is 1
  • Now after that, we entered a number by the user. we have placed it on the int n. 
  • After it, we applied a loop and the loop is running nth time until the value of the n is equal to 1.
  • Every time the value of the i is decreased whenever the loop run.
  • After the loop end, the product of all the numbers is stored on the int fac.
  • At the end of the program, we have got the result as output.
Output: - 

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1/20/22

Impact of Computers on the World: - Positive and Negative


 As we know the computer is one of the most powerful weapons nowadays in our society. Today most of the work has done by computers. Computer saved people time and increase the doing efficiency of work. The daily use of computers has put a strong impact on people's life. The effects are positive as well as negative. We all know that every coin has two faces 1. Head and 2 tails. So, Everything has two sides Positive and Negative

So, today’s article is based on the positive and negative impact of computers nowadays on people day to day life.  We are going to discuss both sides in this article.

POSITIVE IMPACT OF COMPUTER

There is a lot of positive impact of computer. We are going to discuss it through points. 

  • Employment Benefits: - The Computer helps millions of people, It is the most important point of all the points.
  • Educational Benefits: - As you know due to coronavirus all the educational firms are closed. So all the classes are taken from the home. Teachers use laptops or computers to take lectures of the students. 
  • Entertainment Benefits:- People use computers for their entertainment through games, watching movies. 
  • Improved Efficiency:- Computers have increased the ability of people to work. Because of the work that used to be done in the first 2 hours. Today the same work is done in 10 to 15 minutes with the help of computers.
  • Improved Service:- People have received good services from any government or private agency because of the computer. 
  • Better information retrieval:- With the help of computers, it is possible to search millions of documents within a few seconds. There is no need to search for information from a bundle of papers.

NEGATIVE IMPACT OF COMPUTER

  • Employment Problems:- The main negative impact of computers on human life was the employment problem. Computer reduced the manpower of the work. And If a work can be done by one man with the help of computers. So why would the employer hire more men for the same job? That’s why sometimes computers have a negative impact on human life.
  • Collection of unnecessary data:- This is also a main negative impact of computers. Today many government and private companies collect unnecessary information about any person. There is no need to collect all this information on the computer. This information takes a lot of memory space of the computer. 
  • Issue of System Security:- It is also an important point of negative impact. Anybody (who is working on the company, or hackers who access your personal data.) can change, stole, or know your personal information which you don’t want to share with everybody. There are a lot of computer viruses through which hackers or computer experts enter into the computer system to do anything they want with your data.
  • People are depending too much on it:-  Ever since the advent of computers, humans have become dependent on computers. People become lazier to do work. 

The Conclusion

This author concludes that invention is good as long as it is used for the good of men. Those inventions can prove to be harmful and fatal for humans. Those are not inventions but a curse. However, people should also understand what they are inventing. Is that invention a curse or a boon for human life?


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1/7/22

Introduction to Number System.


As we all know that a computer is used to process data entered by the users, and provide results as output. A set of instructions has to be fed into the computer system to instruct the computer that how to process data. And which type of calculation is done when users entered some information through input devices. 

All this information is instructed in the form number system that the computer can understand. These Data can be in the form of characters as well as numbers. 

There are commonly 4 types of a number system. These are:- 

  • Binary Number System
  • Decimal Number System
  • Hexadecimal Number System
  • Octal Number System

Now, we are going to discuss this briefly. 

Note:- The number of digits that can occur at each position of a number in any number system is known as the base of that number system. 

1. Decimal Number System

This is the most commonly used number system in our daily life. The total number of digit in that number system are :- 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9.

The base of that number is 10. The decimal number system is a positional number system that means each digit has a fixed position or weight associated with it, that is why it is also known as the weighted number system. 

I know it is a little bit confusing. So let’s go with an amazing example to understand about it. 

For Example:- 

Let some number randomly, we assume a number 786, now in that number the weight of number [6] is 1 (ones), number [8] is 10 (tens) and number [7] is 100 (hundred). The Number of tens increases every time whenever the number increase. Ex:- 4555 in this example, 4 is the most significant number as the base value of 4 was thousand means 10^4. 

We can define them as 10^0 for 6, 10^1 for 8, 10^2 for 7. That’s why we read it as Seven Hundred Eighty-Six. 

As in the decimal number system, the base is 10, we represent the given number as 786^10. 

Now, We are going to see an example of a decimal number. 

Let Consider a number anything you want. Suppose we assume a decimal number 321.123.  

Note:- If the base is not given in the number it should automatically take 10. 

Now, In the decimal number system, the places to the left of the decimal point are positive and the right point is the negative power of 10. 

The Number before the decimal point is known as an Integral part, And the number after the decimal point is known as the fractional part.

In the given below image, you can see both the integral part and fractional part with their powers.   

So Friends, this is part 1 of this post in our next part we discuss the rest of the number system briefly. Hope what we describe in this post is understandable for you guys. And if you have any doubt then comment below I will try to solve it with my possibilities. Thank You.. 😊

Image is sourced from Google Images. 


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1/1/22

Basic Anatomy of Computer

Introduction 

In many areas of the world, many things are done through computers. Today, the work of a few hours is done within a few seconds through the computer. A Computer saves a lot of human time. We have mentioned about the history of computer in our last few chapters, if you have not read that then go read it. We have told about a computer history in this chapter. In today's chapter, we will learn about common computer equipment. 

Basic Anatomy of Computers

Before the basic anatomy of computers. We would like to define what is Computer? I have already told it in our previous article with full definition if you don’t know computer we recommend you to read it. So

A Computer is an electronic machine that accepts data from the users through input devices and processess it and gives some output through the output device. This is a simple definition of computer. Now All the computer systems perform 5 Basic Operations these are:- 

  • Inputting :- The process of entering data and instruction into the computer system. 
  • Storing :- Saving the data or instruction somewhere so that when require they are available. 
  • Processing :- Performing arithmetical operation or logical operations on data so they output some useful information. 
  • Outputting :- The Process of producing the useful information to the users through some output devices.
  • Controlling :- Directing the manner and Sequence in which all of the above operations are performed. 

All of the above mention options are performed by some functional units which form the basic building blocks of any computer system.

In this Figure, the solid lines are used to indicate the flow of instructions or data the lines represent the control exercised by the control unit. 


In this chapter we have only see the anatomy of computer. In our next article, we are going to know more about this. Stay Happy.

Images Source :- Google Images.

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