What is Topology? Different types of topology.

What is Topology?

The Arrangements of the network in such a manner that they can exchange their data and communicate with each other. There are six types of network topology. These are:- 

  1. Bus Topology
  2. Ring Topology
  3. Star Topology
  4. Mesh Topology
  5. Tree Topology
  6. Hybrid Topology

Bus Topology

  • In a Bus topology, all the computers and network devices are connected to a single cable known as a backbone cable.
  • Each Node is either connected directly to the backbone cable or through a cable that is connected to the backbone cable. 
  • The installation of this topology is quite simpler than the rest of the available networks. 
  • The Computer is connected in such a manner that they look like a straight line, that is why many people know it as “Line topology”. 
                                                              Example of Bus Topology

Advantages of Bus Topology

  • Low-Cost Cables: - In a bus topology, you need only cables to connect with backbone cables. The cost of this cable is very low as compared to other network devices. 
  • Limited Failure Points: - if one node of the network is not working well. There is no issue with the other node's network. 
  • High Speed: - In Bus topology generally twisted-pair cables or coaxial cables are used in which data transfer rates are high. 
  • Simple installation: - The installation of this network is so simple. You just need some equipment to join the cable with the backbone cable.  

Disadvantages of Bus topology

  • Extensive Cables: - Lots of Cables are used to set up for bus topology.
  • Difficult troubleshooting:- You are required to specialized equipment to detect the problems. And if the main wire (backbone cable) has a fault then all the node's connection are stop communicating. 
  • Configuration Problem:- If you want to add a new device to the network it may slow the speed of the rest of the network. 
In this part, we talk about bus topology. The rest of the topology types are covered in our next tutorial. 

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Different types of networks, (LAN, MAN, WAN)

Different types of networks ( LAN, MAN, WAN )

The Network allows a computer or laptop to communicate with each other via different mediums such as LAN, WAN, etc. As per studies, Currently, there are 10 (approx.) different types of networks present in the market. The Name of the networks are:- 

  • Local Area Network                    (LAN)
  • Metropolitan Area Network        (MAN)
  • Wide Area Network                    (WAN)
  • Personal Area Network               (PAN)
  • Campus Area Network                (CAN)
  • System Area Network                 (SAN)
  • Wireless Local Area Network     (WLAN)
  • Passive Optical Local Area Network(POLAN)
  • Enterprise Private Network         (EPN)
  • Virtual Private Network               (VPN)

But we consider you to study only the main type of computer networks. 

So, The 3 Main Computer networks are:- 

  1. Local Area Network (LAN)
  2. Metropolitan Area Network (MAN)
  3. Wide Area Network (WAN). 

These 3 networks are important for the study and the rest of the networks are similar to these three. If you understand these 3 computer networks well, then you will also understand the rest of the computer network easily.  

Local Area Network (LAN)

LAN is the most common, simple, and frequently used computer network. In this type of network two or more computers or devices are connected through the network in such a way that a computer can easily share its data, programs, tools, etc. The group of computers or a device are connected together by a switch or a router. 

In this network, Data Transmit speed is high because only a couple of devices are connected through it so the data transmission speed is high.

There are a lot of advantages of LAN. One of the important advantages of this network was in this network your data are only accessible for those who are connected through LAN. So LAN is considered one of the safest types of networks. 

Metropolitan Area Network (MAN)

Man or metropolitan area network covers a larger area compared to LAN and smaller area compared to WAN. In this type of network, two or more computers and devices are connected with an area of 0 to 25 Km basically span an entire city or a town. This type of network is used by Internet Service Providers (ISP). This type of network is handled by a person or an organization or company. 

One of the best examples of this network was a cable TV network, which is only capable of providing its services only a fixed graphical area.

Wide Area Network (WAN)

As per the name, this network has no limitation or boundation. This type of network has no fixed graphical area. He can extend all over the world. WAN is generally a connection between LAN and MAN. WAN has the slowest data transmit speed because of the larger distances. 

WAN network has a lot of disadvantages. Because anyone can (hackers or crackers) assess your personal data. There is no data privacy on this network. In this network, optical fiber cables are used to transmit the data. Internet and telecommunication are the best examples of this network. 

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C Program to find Gross Salary of an Employee.

C Program to Find Gross Salary of an Employee.

This program is made for those people who worked in any company and they have to know their gross salary. Most of the employees didn't know how much a company pays them for their services. 

So, With the help of this program, the employee knows their exact salary which is paid by a company to him.

Source Code

void main()
float bs,da,hra,gs;
printf("Enter the Basic Salary=");
printf("Your Dearness allowance=%f",da);
printf("\nYour House Rent allowance=%f",hra);
printf("\nYour Gross Salary is=%f",gs);

Output: - 

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C Program to Convert Kilometer into Centimeter, Meter, Inch, Feet.

C Program to Convert Kilometer into Centimeter, Meter, Inch, Feet. 

As you read in the title this program is based to convert kilometers into cm, m, inch, feet, etc.

In this program, we use float data type instead of int because we didn't know the number which is entered by the user is an integer number or a decimal number. 

After it, we applied the formulas of the conversion of km to cm, inch, m, feet.

Fun Fact: - If you don't know the formula just google it. 😉😊.

Source Code 
#include <stdio.h>
int main()
float km,m,f,in,cm;
    printf("\nEnter the distance in KM: ");
    printf("\n\nDISTANCE IN METERS:%f",m);
    printf("\nDISTANCE IN FEET:%f",f);
    printf("\nDISTANCE IN INCHES:%f",in);
    printf("\nDISTANCE IN CENTIMETER:%f",cm);
return 0;


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C Program to find Factorial of any Number.

C Program to find Factorial of any number.

In mathematics, the factorial of the whole number 'n' denoted by 'n!' is defined as the product of all the positive integers equal to or less than the given positive number "n"

The Formula of the factorial of any number was: -

n! = n * (n-1) * (n-2) * ....... 3 x 2 x 1.

For Example :- 

5! = 5 X 4 X 3 X 2 X 1 = 120.

You can also write it as 

5! = 5 X 4! = 120

Whatever we saw above was is in maths. Now we will see this through c programming. How would this formula be used in c programming? 

Source Code :-

int i,n,fac=1;
printf("Enter the Number");
for (i=n;i>=1;--i)

Explanation of the code: - 
  • In this code, we simply get three integer containers ( i, n, fac ) respectively. we have already defined int fac value which is 1
  • Now after that, we entered a number by the user. we have placed it on the int n. 
  • After it, we applied a loop and the loop is running nth time until the value of the n is equal to 1.
  • Every time the value of the i is decreased whenever the loop run.
  • After the loop end, the product of all the numbers is stored on the int fac.
  • At the end of the program, we have got the result as output.
Output: - 

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